Built in

For this section, remember that, like mentioned in the service section, a service is a Kleisli[OptionT[F, *], Request[F], Response[F]], the composable version of Request[F] => OptionT[F, Response[F]].

Lets start by defining all the imports we will need in the examples below:

import cats._, cats.effect._, cats.implicits._,
import org.http4s._
import org.http4s.server._

To add authentication to a service, we need some kind of User object which identifies the user who sent the request. We represent that with AuthedRequest[F, User], which allows you to reference such object, and is the equivalent to (User, Request[F]). http4s provides you with AuthedRequest, but you have to provide your own user, or authInfo representation. For our purposes here we will use the following definition:

case class User(id: Long, name: String)

With the request representation defined, we can move on to the AuthedRoutes[User, F], an alias for AuthedRequest[F, User] => OptionT[F, Response[F]]. Notice the similarity to a "normal" service, which would be the equivalent to Request[F] => OptionT[F, Response[F]] - in other words, we are lifting the Request into an AuthedRequest, and adding authentication information in the mix.

With that we can represent a service that requires authentication, but to actually construct it we need to define how to extract the authentication information from the request. For that, we need a function with the following signature: Request[F] => OptionT[F, User]. Here is an example of how to define it:

val authUser: Kleisli[OptionT[IO, *], Request[IO], User] =
  Kleisli(_ => OptionT.liftF(IO(???)))

It is worth noting that we are still wrapping the user fetch in F (IO in this case), because actually discovering the user might require reading from a database or calling some other service - i.e. performing IO operations.

Now we need a middleware that can bridge a "normal" service into an AuthedRoutes, which is quite easy to get using our function defined above. We use AuthMiddleware for that:

val middleware: AuthMiddleware[IO, User] =

Finally, we can create our AuthedRoutes, and wrap it with our authentication middleware, getting the final HttpRoutes to be exposed. Notice that we now have access to the user object in the service implementation:

val authedRoutes: AuthedRoutes[User, IO] =
  AuthedRoutes.of {
    case GET -> Root / "welcome" as user => Ok(s"Welcome, ${}")

val service: HttpRoutes[IO] = middleware(authedRoutes)

Composing Authenticated Routes

The default apply method of AuthMiddleware will consume all requests either unmatched, or not authenticated by returning an empty response with status code 401 (Unauthorized). This mitigates a kind of reconnaissance called "spidering", useful for white and black hat hackers to enumerate your api for possible unprotected points.

val spanishRoutes: AuthedRoutes[User, IO] =
    AuthedRoutes.of {
        case GET -> Root / "hola" as user => Ok(s"Hola, ${}")

val frenchRoutes: HttpRoutes[IO] =
    HttpRoutes.of {
        case GET -> Root / "bonjour" => Ok(s"Bonjour")

val serviceSpanish: HttpRoutes[IO] =
  middleware(spanishRoutes) <+> frenchRoutes

Call to the french routes will always return 401 (Unauthorized) as they are caught by the spanish routes. To allow access to other routes you can:

val serviceRouter = {
  Router (
    "/spanish" -> middleware(spanishRoutes),
    "/french" -> frenchRoutes
val middlewareWithFallThrough: AuthMiddleware[IO, User] =
val serviceSF: HttpRoutes[IO] =
  middlewareWithFallThrough(spanishRoutes) <+> frenchRoutes
val serviceFS: HttpRoutes[IO] =
  frenchRoutes <+> middlewareWithFallThrough(spanishRoutes)

Alternatively, to customize the behavior on not authenticated if you do not wish to always return 401, use AuthMiddleware.noSpider and specify the onAuthFailure handler.

Returning an Error Response

Usually, it should also be possible to send back a 401 in case there was no valid login. The 401 response can be adjusted as needed, some applications use a redirect to a login page, or a popup requesting login data. With the upcoming of SPA, the correct http status codes are relevant again.

With Kleisli

To allow for failure, the authUser function has to be adjusted to a Request[F] => F[Either[String,User]]. So we'll need to handle that possibility. For advanced error handling, we recommend an error ADT instead of a String.

val authUserEither: Kleisli[IO, Request[IO], Either[String,User]] =
  Kleisli(_ => IO(???))

val onFailure: AuthedRoutes[String, IO] =
  Kleisli(req => OptionT.liftF(Forbidden(req.context)))

val authMiddleware = AuthMiddleware(authUserEither, onFailure)

val serviceKleisli: HttpRoutes[IO] = authMiddleware(authedRoutes)

Implementing authUser

There's a few different ways to send authorization information with a HTTP request, the two most common are cookie for regular browser usage or the Authorization header for SPA.


We'll use a small library for the signing/validation of the cookies, which basically contains the code used by the Play framework for this specific task.

libraryDependencies += "org.reactormonk" %% "cryptobits" % "1.3"

First, we'll need to set the cookie. For the crypto instance, we'll need to provide a private key. You usually want to set a static secret so people don't lose their session on server restarts, and a static secret also allows you to use multiple application instances.

The message is simply the user id.

import org.reactormonk.{CryptoBits, PrivateKey}
import scala.util.Random

val key = PrivateKey(Codec.toUTF8(Random.alphanumeric.take(20).mkString("")))
val crypto = CryptoBits(key)
val clock = java.time.Clock.systemUTC

// gotta figure out how to do the form
def verifyLogin(request: Request[IO]): IO[Either[String,User]] = ???

val logIn: Kleisli[IO, Request[IO], Response[IO]] = Kleisli({ request =>
  verifyLogin(request: Request[IO]).flatMap(_ match {
    case Left(error) =>
    case Right(user) => {
      val message = crypto.signToken(, clock.millis.toString)
      Ok("Logged in!").map(_.addCookie(ResponseCookie("authcookie", message)))

Now that the cookie is set, we can retrieve it again in the authUser.

import org.http4s.headers.Cookie

def retrieveUser: Kleisli[IO, Long, User] = Kleisli(id => IO(???))
val authUserCookie: Kleisli[IO, Request[IO], Either[String,User]] = Kleisli({ request =>
  val message = for {
    header  <- request.headers.get[Cookie]
                 .toRight("Cookie parsing error")
    cookie  <- header.values.toList.find( == "authcookie")
                 .toRight("Couldn't find the authcookie")
    token   <- crypto.validateSignedToken(cookie.content)
                 .toRight("Cookie invalid")
    message <- Either.catchOnly[NumberFormatException](token.toLong)
  } yield message

Authorization Header

There is no inherent way to set the Authorization header, send the token in any way that your SPA understands. Retrieve the header value in the authUser function.

import org.http4s.syntax.header._
import org.http4s.headers.Authorization

val authUserHeader: Kleisli[IO, Request[IO], Either[String,User]] = Kleisli({ request =>
  val message = for {
    header  <- request.headers.get[Authorization]
                 .toRight("Couldn't find an Authorization header")
    token   <- crypto.validateSignedToken(header.value)
                 .toRight("Invalid token")
    message <- Either.catchOnly[NumberFormatException](token.toLong)
  } yield message